Pali Primer Exercise 26
Translate into English:
1. Pakkhī gāyanto sākhāyaṃ nisīdati.
bird / singing / on branch /
The bird sits on the branch singing.
2. Gāviṃ rajjuyā muñcamānā ammā khette ṭhitā hoti.
cow / from rope / releasing /
mother / in field / stood / is
Mother is standing in the field releasing the cow from the rope.
3. Kaññāyo sabhāyaṃ naccantiyo gāyiṃsu.
girls / in hall / dancing /
The girls sang while dancing in the hall.
4. Seṭṭhī mahantaṃ (much) dhanaṃ vissajjetvā samaṇānaṃ vihāraṃ
millionaire / much / wealth /
having spent / for monks / monastery / got...built
The millionaire spent much wealth and got a monastery built for the
5. Hatthino ca kaṇeruyo ca aṭaviyaṃ āhiṇḍanti.
male elephants and / female
elephants / in forest / roam
Male and female elephants roam in the forest.
6. Pāpakārī pāpāni paṭicchādetvā sappuriso viya (like) sabhāyaṃ
nisinno seṭṭhinā saddhiṃ kathesi.
evil doer / wicked deeds /
having hidden / righteous man / like / at meeting / seated / with rich
man / spoke
The evil doer hid (his) wicked deeds and sitting at the meeting (posing)
like a righteous man spoke with the rich man.
7. Sappurisā dīghajīvino hontu, puttā sukhino bhavantu.
good men / long living people /
may...be / sons / happy / may...be
May good men enjoy long life, may (their) sons be happy.
8. Vāṇijo nagaramhā bhaṇḍāni kiṇitvā piṭakesu pakkhipitvā rajjuyā
bandhitvā āpaṇaṃ pesesi.
merchant / from town / goods /
having bought / in boxes / having packed / with rope / having tied /
[to] market / sent
The merchant bought the goods from the town, packed (them) in boxes,
tied (the boxes) with a rope and sent (them) to the market.
9. Sārathinā āhaṭe rathe vaḍḍhakī nisinno hoti.
by charioteer / brought / in
chariot / carpenter / seated / is
The carpenter is seated in the chariot brought by the charioteer.
10. Sabbe (all) pāṇino dīghajīvino na bhavanti/honto.
all / beings / long living ones
/ are not
All beings do not have long lives.
11. Ammā vaḍḍhakinā gehaṃ kārāpetvā dārikāhi saha tattha (there)
mother / carpenter / house /
got..ṭo build / with girls / there / lived
The mother got the carpenter to build a house and lived there with the
12. Mayaṃ maṇayo vatthena veṭhetvā mañjūsāyaṃ nikkhipitvā bhariyānaṃ
we / gems / in cloth / having
wrapped / in box / having placed / to wives / sent
Having wrapped the gems in cloth and placed in a box, we sent (them) to
13. Muni pāpakāriṃ pakkosāpetvā dhammaṃ desetvā ovadi.
sage / evil-doer / having
summoned / doctrine / having preached / advised
Having summoned the evil-doer, the sage preached the doctrine and
14. Balinā bhūpatino dinnaṃ kariṃ oloketuṃ tumhe sannipatittha.
by powerful one / to king /
given / elephant / to look / you / assembled
You assembled to look at the elephant given to the king by the powerful
15. Ahaṃ seṭṭhī kuṭṭhiṃ pakkosāpetvā bhojanaṃ (food) dāpesiṃ.
I / millionaire / leper /
having got..ṣummoned / food / got...given
I, the millionaire, called the leper and caused him to be given food.
16. Sace girimhi sikhino vasanti, te (them) passituṃ ahaṃ giriṃ
if / peacocks / in mountain /
live / them / to see / I / mountain / to climb / will try
If the peacocks live in the mountain, I will try to climb the mountain
to see them.
17. Bhūpati sappuriso abhavi/ahosi; mantino pāpakārino
king / righteous man / was /
ministers / evil-doers / were
The king was a righteous man, the ministers were evil-doers.
18. Balinā kārāpitesu pāsādesu seṭṭhino puttā na vasiṃsu.
by powerful ones / got..built /
in palaces / banker's / sons / did not live
The banker's sons did not live in the palaces the powerful ones got
19. Sabbe pāṇino sukhaṃ pariyesamānā jīvanti, kammāni karonti.
all / living beings / happiness
/ seeking / live / deeds / performing
All beings live seeking happiness and performing deeds.
20. Sāmī maṇayo ca suvaṇṇaṃ ca kiṇitvā bhariyāya adadi/adāsi.
husband / gems and / gold and /
having bought / to wife / gave
The husband bought gems and gold and gave to (his) wife.
21. Asanisaddaṃ (sound of thunder) sutvā girimhi sikhino naccituṃ
peal of thunder / having heard
/ in mountain / peacocks / to dance / began
After hearing the peal of thunder, peacocks in the mountain began to
22. Mā balino pāpakārī hontu/bhavantu.
not / powerful men / evil doers
/ may/should be
Powerful men should not be evil doers.
Alt: May the powerful ones not be evil doers.
23. Sappurisā kusalaṃ karontā, manussehi puññaṃ kārentā, sukhino
good men / merits / doing /
people / good / getting..ṭo do / happy / become
Righteous men doing good get people engaged in meritorious deeds and
24. Kavi asinā ariṃ pahari; kaviṃ paharituṃ asakkonto ari kuddho
poet / with sword / enemy / hit
/ poet / to hit / unable / enemy / angry / was
The poet hit the enemy with a sword; unable to hit the poet, the enemy
25. Kapayo rukkhesu carantā pupphāni ca chindiṃsu.
monkeys / on trees / moving /
flowers (and) / destroyed
The monkeys moving on the trees destroyed the flowers.
Translate into Pali:
1. Followed by the evil hunter the elephants ran in the forest.
anubandhitā / pāpakārinā /
luddakena / hatthino / dhāviṃsu / aṭaviyaṃ
Pāpakārinā luddakena anubandhitā hatthino aṭaviyaṃ dhāviṃsu.
2. The leper took the garments given by the husband.
kuṭṭhī / gaṇhi / sāṭake / dinne
Kuṭṭhī sāminā dinne sāṭake gaṇhi.
3. Leopards living in the forest do not fear lions living in the
dīpayo / vasantā / araññamhi /
na bhāyanti / sīhehi / vasantehi / guhāsu
Dīpayo araññamhi vasantā guhāsu vasantehi sīhehi na bhāyanti.
4. Singing a song, the boys danced with the girls in the hall.
gāyantā / gītaṃ / kumārā /
nacciṃsu / dārikāhi saha / sālāyaṃ
Gītaṃ gāyantā kumārā sālāyaṃ dārikāhi saha nacciṃsu.
5. Mothers with their daughters spread lotuses on the flower altar
ammāyo / dhītūhi saha /
pattariṃsu / padumāni / pupphāsane
Ammāyo dhītūhi saha pupphāsane padumāni patthariṃsu.
6. If the boys drink liquor, the girls will become angry and will not
sace / kumārā / piveyyuṃ /
suraṃ / kumāriyo / kujjhitvā / na gāyissanti
Sace kumārā suraṃ piveyyuṃ kumāriyo kujjhitvā na gāyissanti.
7. The farmer got angry with the evil doer (use gen.) who harassed
the cows grazing in the field.
kassako / kujjhi / pāpakārissa
/ viheṭhentassa / gāviyo / khādantiyo / tiṇaṃ / khettasmiṃ
Kassako khettasmiṃ tiṇaṃ khādantiyo gāviyo viheṭhentassa pāpakārissa
8. The banker got the carpenter to build a mansion for his sons.
seṭṭhī / vaḍḍhakinā / kāresi /
pāsādaṃ / puttānaṃ
Seṭṭhī vaḍḍhakinā puttānaṃ pāsādaṃ kāresi.
9. May the deities protect the good king governing the island
devā / rakkhantu / sappurisaṃ /
bhūpatiṃ / pālentaṃ / dīpaṃ / dhammena
Devā dhammena dīpaṃ pālentaṃ sappurisaṃ bhūpatiṃ rakkhantu.
10. May all (sabbe) living beings live long happily.
Lit: May all living beings be happy and long-living.
sabbe / pāṇino / hontu/bhavantu
/ sukhino / dīghajīvino
Sabbe pāṇino sukhino dīghajīvino hontu/bhavantu.
Pali Primer Exercise 27
Translate into English:
1. Bhikkhavo Tathāgatassa sāvakā honti.
monks / Buddha's / disciples /
The monks are disciples of the Buddha.
2. Bandhavo ammaṃ passituṃ nagaramhā gāmaṃ āgamiṃsu.
relatives / mother / to see /
from city / [to] village / came
The relatives came from the city to the village to see (their) mother.
3. Coro āraññe taravo chindituṃ pharasuṃ ādāya gacchi/agami.
thief / in forest / trees / to
cut / axe / having taken / went
The thief taking the axe went to cut the trees in the forest.
4. Sīhā ca dīpayo ca aṭaviyaṃ vasante pasavo māretvā khādanti.
lions and / leopards and / in
forest / living / beasts / having killed / eat
The lions and leopards kill and eat the beasts living in the forest.
5. Sappurisā viññuno bhavanti.
righteous men / wise men / are
Righteous men are wise men.
6. Bhūpati mantīhi saddhiṃ sindhuṃ taritvā sattavo paharitvā jinituṃ
king / with ministers / sea /
having crossed / enemies / having attacked / to win / tried
The king crossed the sea with the ministers, attacked the enemies and
tried to win.
7. Ammā kaṭacchunā dārikaṃ odanaṃ bhojāpesi.
mother / with spoon / to girl /
rice / fed
The mother fed rice to the girl with a spoon.
8. Hatthino ca kaṇeruyo ca ucchavo ākaḍḍhitvā khādiṃsu.
male elephants and / female
elephants and / sugarcane / having pulled / ate
Male and female elephants pulled and ate the sugarcane.
9. Bhūpatissa mantino sattūnaṃ ketavo āhariṃsu.
king's / ministers / enemies' /
flags / brought
The king's ministers brought the enemies' flags.
10. Setumhi nisinno bandhu taruno sākhaṃ hatthena ākaḍḍhi.
on bridge / seated / relative /
tree's / branch / with hand / dragged
The relative seated on the bridge dragged the branch of the tree with
11. Uyyāne ropitesu veḷūsu pakkhino nisīditvā gāyanti.
in park / planted / bamboos /
birds / having perched / sing
The birds perch and sing on the bamboos planted in the park.
12. Sace pabhuno atthaññū honti manussā sukhino gāme viharituṃ
if / important people /
benevolent / are / people / happily / in village / to live / are able
If important people are benevolent (and wise), (common) people are able
to live happily in the village.
13. Sabbaññū Tathāgato dhammena manusse anusāsati.
all-knowing / Buddha /
according to law / people / admonishes
The all-knowing Buddha admonishes the people according to the law.
14. Mattaññū* sappurisā dīghajīvino ca sukhino ca bhaveyyuṃ.
moderate / good men / long
living and / happy and / may become
May good men who know their limits live long happily.
15. Viññūhi anusāsitā mayaṃ kumārā sappurisā bhavituṃ ussahimha.
by wise man / admonished / we /
boys / righteous man / to be / tried
Admonished by the wise man, we boys tried to be righteous men.
16. Mayaṃ ravino ālokena ākāse uḍḍente pakkhino passituṃ sakkoma.
we / sun's / with light / in
sky / flying / birds / to see / are able
With the light of the sun, We are able to see the birds flying in the
17. Tumhe pabhuno hutvā dhammena jīvituṃ vāyameyyātha.
you / eminent / having become /
righteously / to live / try
You try to become eminent and live righteously.
18. Ahaṃ dhammaṃ desentaṃ bhikkhuṃ jānāmi.
I / dhamma / preaching / monk /
I know the monk preaching the dhamma.
19. Ahayo ākhavo khādantā aṭaviyā vammikesu (anthills) vasanti.
serpents / mice / eating / in
forest / in anthills / live
Serpents live in the anthills in the forest eating mice.
20. Vanitāya sassu bhaginiyā ucchavo ca padumāni ca adadi/adāsi.
woman's / mother-in-law / to
sister / sugarcane and / lotuses and / gave
The woman's mother-in-law gave sugarcane and lotuses to (her) sister.
Translate into Pali:
1. Crossing the bridge the enemy has entered the island.
taritvā / setuṃ / sattu /
pavisi / dīpaṃ
Sattu setuṃ taritvā dīpaṃ pavisi.
2. You shall not cut bamboos with axes, you may with saws.
tumhe / mā / chindatha / veḷavo
/ pharasūhi / tumhe / (chindatha) kakacehi
Mā tumhe pharasūhi veḷavo chindatha, kakacehi chindatha.
3. King's ministers tied banners on the bridge and on trees.
bhūpatino / amaccā / bandhiṃsu
/ ketavo / setumhi ca / rukkhesu ca
Bhūpatino amaccā setumhi ca rukkhesu ca ketavo bandhiṃsu.
4. The beasts fed the young ones with rats.
pasavo / khādāpesuṃ / ākhavo /
Pasavo susūhi ākhavo khādāpesuṃ.
5. Wise men became eminent people.
viññuno / abhaviṃsu / pabhuno
Viññuno pabhuno abhaviṃsu.
6. The monk was a relation of the king who rules the island.
bhikkhu / ahosi / bandhu /
bhūpatissa / pālentassa / dīpaṃ
Bhikkhu dīpaṃ pālentassa bhūpatissa bandhu ahosi.
7. The trees cut by the enemy fell into the sea.
rukkhā / chinnā / sattunā /
patiṃsu / udadhimhi
Sattunā chinnā rukkhā udadhimhi patiṃsu.
8. With the fist the mother hit the dog which was trying to bite the
muṭṭhinā / ammā / pahari /
sunakhaṃ / ussahantaṃ / ḍasituṃ / kumāriṃ
Muṭṭhinā ammā kumāriṃ ḍasituṃ ussahantaṃ sunakhaṃ pahari.
9. Kings protect recluses, brahmins, men and beasts living in the
bhūpatayo / rakkhanti / samaṇe
ca / brāhmaṇe ca / manusse ca / pasavo ca / vasante / dīpe
Bhūpatayo dīpe vasante samaṇe ca brāhmaṇe ca manusse ca pasavo ca
10. Mother's sister killed a rat with a bamboo.
ammāya / bhaginī / maresi /
ākhuṃ / veḷunā
Ammāya bhaginī veḷunā ākhuṃ maresi.
11. The teacher sent sugarcane to the **tuskers' young ones.
ācariyo / pesesi / ucchavo /
dāṭhīnaṃ / susūnaṃ
Ācariyo dāṭhīnaṃ susūnaṃ ucchavo pesesi.
12. Seeing a monkey trying to enter the house the husband closed the
disvā / kapiṃ / ussahantaṃ /
pavisituṃ / gehaṃ / pati / thakesi / dvāraṃ
Gehaṃ pavisituṃ ussahantaṃ kapiṃ disvā pati dvāraṃ thakesi.
* Mattaññū may also be translated as those who have fewness of
wishes, or who are contented with little.
** Tuskers refer to the elephants or animals having tusks.
Pali Primer Exercise 28
Translate into English:
1. Satthā bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ desento rukkhassa chāyāya nisinno hoti.
teacher / to monks / dhamma /
preaching / tree's / in shade / seated / is
The teacher preaching the dhamma to the monks is seated in the shade of
2. Puññāni kattāro bhikkhūnaṃ ca tāpasānaṃ ca dānaṃ denti.
merits / doers / to monks and /
to ascetics and / alms / give
Those who do meritorious deeds give alms to the monks and ascetics.
3. Sace satthā dhammaṃ deseyya viññātāro bhavissanti.
if / teacher / dhamma / would
preach / knowers / (there) will be
If the teacher would preach the dhamma, (there) will be those who
4. Bhūpati dīpasmiṃ jetā bhavatu.
king / in island / victorious /
May the king be victorious in the island.
5. Pitā dhītaraṃ ādāya vihāraṃ gantvā satthāraṃ vandāpesi.
father / daughter / having
taken / [to] monastery / having gone / teacher / got..ṭo worship
The father took his daughter (and went) to the monastery and made (her)
worship the teacher.
6. Viññātāro loke manussānaṃ netāro hontu/bhavantu.
wise ones / in world / people's
/ leaders / may...be
May the wise ones be leaders of the people in the world.
7. Bhātā pitarā saddhiṃ mātuyā pacitaṃ yāguṃ bhuñji.
brother / with father / by
mother / cooked / gruel / ate
Brother, with father, ate the gruel prepared by mother.
8. Bhattā nattārehi saha kīḷantaṃ kapiṃ disvā hasanto aṭṭhāsi
husband / with grandchildren /
playing / monkey / having seen / laughing / stood
Seeing the monkey playing with the grandchildren, the husband stood
9. Setuṃ kattāro veḷavo bandhitvā nadiyā tīre ṭhapesuṃ.
bridge / makers / bamboos /
having tied / of river / on bank / kept
Bridge makers tied the bamboos and kept (them) on the river bank.
10. Sindhuṃ taritvā dīpaṃ gantāro sattūhi hatā honti.
sea / having crossed / [to]
island / goers / by enemies / killed / are
Having crossed the sea, those going to the island are killed by the
11. Bhariyā bhattu sāṭake rajakena dhovāpesi.
wife / husband's / garments /
washerman / got..ṭo wash
The wife got the washerman to wash the garments of (her) husband.
12. Netuno kathaṃ sotāro uyyāne nisinnā suriyena pīḷitā honti.
leader's / speech / listeners /
in park / seated / by sun / oppressed / are
The listeners of the leader's speech seated in the park are oppressed by
13. Dātārehi dinnāni vatthāni yācakehi na vikkiṇitabbāni honti.
by donors / given / clothes /
by beggars / not / to be sold / are
The clothes given by the donors should not be sold by the beggars.
14. Rodantassa nattussa kujjhitvā vanitā taṃ (him) hatthena pahari.
crying / with crying grandson /
having got angry / woman / him / with hand / hit
Having got angry with the crying grandson, the woman hit him with (her)
15. Vinetuno ovādaṃ (advice) sutvā bandhavo sappurisā
disciplinarian's / advice /
having heard / relatives / good men / became
Having heard the disciplinarian's advice, the relatives became good men.
16. Gehesu ca aṭavīsu ca vasante ākhavo ahayo khādanti.
in houses and / in forests and
/ living / mice / serpents / eat
The serpents eat the mice living in the houses and forests.
17. Nattā mātaraṃ yāguṃ yācanto bhūmiyaṃ patitvā rodati.
grandchild / mother / gruel /
begging / on ground / having fallen / cries
Begging mother (for) gruel, the grandchild falls on the ground and
18. Tumhe bhātarānaṃ ca bhaginīnaṃ ca mā kujjhatha.
you / with brothers and / with
sisters and / do not / get angry
You, do not get angry with (your) brothers and sisters.
19. Dīpaṃ gantārehi nāvāya sindhu taritabbo hoti.
[to] island / by goers / by
ship / sea / to be crossed / is
Those who go to the island should cross the sea by ship.
20. Pubbakā (ancient) isayo mantānaṃ (magic spells) kattāro ca
mantānaṃ pavattāro (reciters) ca abhaviṃsu/ahesuṃ.
ancient / seers / magic spells'
/ composers and / magic spells' / reciters and / were
Ancient seers were composers and reciters of magic spells.
21. Mattaññū dātāro nattārānaṃ thokaṃ thokaṃ modake (sweets)
moderate / donors / to
grandchildren / a little (of) / sweets / gave
The moderate donors gave a little of the sweets to the grandchildren.
22. Atthaññū netāro manusse sappurise karontā vinetāro bhavanti.
intelligent / leaders / people
/ good men / making / disciplinarians / are
Intelligent leaders are disciplinarians who make people good men.
23. Mātā dhītaraṃ ovadantī sīsaṃ (head) cumbitvā (kissed) bāhuṃ
mother / daughter / advising /
head / having kissed / arm / having stroked / comforted
The mother advising the daughter kissed (her) head, stroked (her) arm
and comforted her.
24. Vadaññū brāhmaṇo khudāya pīḷente yācake disvā pahūtaṃ (much)
bhojanaṃ (food) dāpesi.
generous / brahmin / by hunger
/ oppressed / beggars / having seen / much / food / got..ṭo be given
The generous brahmin saw beggars oppressed with hunger and caused much
food to be given.
25. Sārathinā āhaṭe veḷavo gahetvā vaḍḍhakī sālaṃ māpesi.
by charioteer / brought /
bamboos / having taken / carpenter / hall / got...built
Having taken the bamboos brought by the charioteer, the carpenter got a
Translate into Pali:
1. Father and mother went with the brother to see the sister.
pitā ca / mātā ca / agamiṃsu /
bhātarā saha / passituṃ / bhaginiṃ
Pitā ca mātā ca bhātarā saha bhaginiṃ passituṃ agamiṃsu.
2. Evil doers will not live long happily.
pāpakārino / na bhavissanti /
dīghajīvino / sukhino
Pāpakārino na sukhino dīghajīvino bhavissanti.
3. May the king, together with his retinue, become victorious.
bhūpati / parisāya saha /
bhavantu / jetāro
Bhūpati parisāya saha jetāro bhavantu.
4. Mother's brother is the uncle.
mātāya / bhātā / hoti / mātulo
Mātāya bhātā mātulo hoti.
5. The enemies of my brothers tied banners on trees and bamboos.
sattavo / bhātūnaṃ / bandhiṃsu
/ ketavo / tarūsu ca / veḷūsu ca
Bhātūnaṃ sattavo tarūsu ca veḷūsu ca ketavo bandhiṃsu.
6. The house builder gave bamboos to the grandsons.
dadi/adāsi / veḷavo / nattānaṃ
Vaḍḍhakī/gahakārako nattānaṃ veḷavo dadi/adāsi.
7. Brother gave food to (my) daughter with a spoon.
bhātā / dadi/adāsi / bhojanaṃ /
duhituyā / kaṭacchunā
Bhātā kaṭacchunā duhituyā bhojanaṃ dadi/adāsi.
8. The Buddha is the teacher of gods and men.
Buddho / hoti / satthā /
devānaṃ ca / manussānaṃ ca
Buddho devānaṃ ca manussānaṃ ca satthā hoti.
9. May you (pl.) be speakers of the truth.
tumhe / bhavatha / saccaṃ
Tumhe saccaṃ vattāro bhavatha.
10. Good husbands are kind (kāruṇikā) to their wives like gods.
sappurisā bhattāro / honti /
kāruṇikā / bhariyānaṃ / viya / devā
Sappurisā bhattāro bhariyānaṃ devā viya kāruṇikā honti.
11. Let good men become powerful ministers to govern the island.
sappurisā / bhavantu / balino
amaccā / pāletuṃ / dīpaṃ
Sappurisā dīpaṃ pāletuṃ balino amaccā bhavantu.
12. The powerful kings were victorious.
balavantā / bhūpatayo /
abhaviṃsu/bhaviṃsu / jetāro
Balavantā bhūpatayo jetāro abhaviṃsu/bhaviṃsu.
Pali Primer Exercise 29
Translate into English:
1. Gehaṃ pavisantaṃ ahiṃ disvā kaññā bhāyitvā assūni pavattentī
house / entering / serpent /
having seen / girl / having got frightened / tears / shedding / to cry /
On seeing the serpent entering the house, the girl was frightened and,
shedding tears, began to cry.
Alt: On seeing the serpent entering the house, the girl was frightened
and began to weep and cry."
2. Dīpinā hatāya gāviyā aṭṭhīni bhūmiyaṃ vippakiṇṇāni honti.
by leopard / killed / cow's /
bones / on ground / scattered / are
The bones of the cow killed by the leopard are scattered on the ground.
3. Nadiyā vārinā vatthāni dhovanto pitā nahāpetuṃ puttaṃ pakkosi.
in river / with water / clothes
/ washing / father / to get bathed / son / called
Washing clothes with the water in the river, the father called (his) son
to get a bath.
4. Tvaṃ sappinā ca madhunā sammissetvā odanaṃ bhuñjissasi.
you / with ghee / and / with
honey / having mixed / rice / will eat
You will eat the rice, having mixed (it) with ghee and honey.
5. Mayaṃ khīramhā dadhiṃ labhāma.
we / from milk / curd / get
We get curd from milk.
6. Bhikkhu dīpassa acciṃ olokento aniccasaññaṃ (perception of
impermanence) vaḍḍhento (developing) nisīdi.
monk / lamp's / flame /
observing / perception of impermanence / developing / sat
Observing the flame of the lamp, the monk sat developing the perception
7. Pāpakāri luddako dhanuṃ ca sare ca ādāya aṭaviṃ paviṭṭho.
evil / hunter / bow and /
arrows and / having taken / forest / entered
The evil hunter has taken (his) bow and arrows and entered the forest.
8. Sattu amaccassa satthiṃ asīnā paharitvā aṭṭhiṃ chindi.
enemy / minister's / thigh /
with sword / having hit / bone / broke
The enemy hit with a sword the minister's thigh and broke (his) bone.
9. Ahaṃ sappinā pacitaṃ odanaṃ madhunā bhuñjituṃ na icchāmi.
I / with ghee / cooked / rice /
with honey / to eat / do not like
I do not like to eat the rice cooked in ghee with honey.
10. Nattā hatthehi ca jaṇṇūhi ca gacchantaṃ yācakaṃ disvā
anukampamāno bhojanaṃ ca vatthaṃ ca dāpesi.
grandson / with hands / with
knees / going / beggar / having seen / feeling compassionate / food and
/ clothe and / caused..ṭo be given
Seeing the beggar going on (his) hands and knees, the grandson felt
compassionate and caused food and a clothe to be given (to him).
Alt: Seeing the beggar going on (his) hands and knees, the grandson felt
compassionate and had food and clothing given (to him).
11. Dārūni saṃharantiyo itthiyo aṭaviyaṃ āhiṇḍantī gāyiṃsu.
firewood / collecting / women /
in forest / wandering / sang
The women collecting firewood sang wandering in the forest.
12. Ambūmhi jātāni padumāni na ambunā upalittāni (smeared) honti.
in water / borned / lotuses /
not / with water / smeared / are
Lotuses borned in the water are not smeared with water.
13. Manussā nānākammāni (various work) katvā vasuṃ saṃharitvā
puttadāre (children and wives) posetuṃ ussahanti.
people / various work / having
done / wealth / having accumulated / children and wives / to bring up /
The people doing various work and accumulating wealth try to bring up
(their) children and wives.
14. Bhattā mātuyā akkhīsu assūni disvā bhariyāya kujjhi.
husband / mother's / in eyes /
tears / having seen / with wife / got angry
Seeing tears in the mother's eyes, the husband got angry with (his)
15. Pitā khettavatthūni puttānaṃ ca nattārānaṃ ca vibhajitvā vihāraṃ
father / fields and estates /
to children and / to grandchildren and / having distributed / [to]
monastery / having gone / renounced
Having distributed to (his) children and grandchildren fields and
estates, the father went to the monastery and became a monk.
16. Pakkhīhi khāditānaṃ phalānaṃ aṭṭhīni rukkhamūle patitāni honti.
by birds / eaten / fruits' /
seeds / at root of tree / fallen / are
The seeds of the fruits eaten by the birds have fallen at the root of
17. Ācariyo sissānaṃ (pupils) sippaṃ (art) vācento te anukampamāno
dhammena jīvituṃ anusāsi.
teacher / to pupils / art /
teaching / them / feeling compassionate / righteously / to live /
Feeling compassionate, the teacher teaching art to (his) pupils
instructed them to live righteously.
18. Bodhisatto samaṇo māraṃ (the evil one) parājetvā Buddho
Bodhisatta / ascetic / the evil
one / having defeated / Buddha / became
Having defeated the evil one, the Bodhisatta ascetic became the Buddha.
19. Buddhaṃ passitvā dhammaṃ sotuṃ patthentā narā dhammaṃ carituṃ
Buddha / having seen / Dhamma /
to hear / aspiring / people / dhamma / to walk / endeavour
Seeing the Buddha and aspiring to hear the Dhamma, the people endeavour
to practise the Dhamma.
20. Sace sappurisānaṃ sabbā patthanā (fem. aspirations) samijjheyyuṃ
manussā loke sukhaṃ vindeyyuṃ.
if / virtuous men's / all /
aspirations / may get fulfilled / people / in world / joy / will
If all the aspirations of the virtuous men get fulfilled, the people in
the world would experience joy.
21. Vyādhinā pīḷitā mātā assūni pavattentī dhītuyā gehaṃ āgantvā
mañce sayitvā yāguṃ yāci.
by disease / oppressed / mother
/ tears / shedding / daughter's / house / having come / on bed / having
lay / gruel / asked for
Oppressed by a disease, the mother shedding tears came to the daughter's
house, and lying on the bed, asked for gruel.
22. Mātaraṃ anukampamānā dhītā khippaṃ (soon) yāguṃ paṭiyādetvā
mātuyā mukhaṃ (face) dhovitvā yāguṃ pāyesi.
to mother / feeling
compassionate / daughter / soon / gruel / having prepared / mother's /
face / having washed / gruel / made..ḍrink
Feeling compassionate to (her) mother, the daughter soon prepared the
gruel, washed (her) mother's face, and helped her drink the gruel.
23. Pitarā puṭṭhaṃ pañhaṃ bhattā sammā (correctly) vibhajitvā upamāya
(with a simile) atthaṃ vyākari/vyākāsi.
by father / asked / question /
husband / correctly / having analysed / with a simile / meaning /
Having analysed correctly the question asked by the father, the husband
explained the meaning with a simile.
24. Luddako aṭaviyā bhūmiyaṃ dhaññaṃ vippakiritvā mige palobhetvā
(tempting) māretuṃ ussahi.
hunter / in forest / on ground
/ corn / having scattered / deer / tempting / to kill / tried
The hunter tried to kill the deer by scattering corn on the ground in
the forest and tempting (them).
25. Dhaññaṃ khādantā migā āgacchantaṃ luddakaṃ disvā vegena
corn / eating / deer / coming /
having seen / speedily / ran
While eating the corn, the deer saw the hunter coming and ran (away)
Translate into Pali:
1. He saw the bones of the animals killed by the leopards in the
so / passi / aṭṭhīni / pasūnaṃ
/ hatānaṃ / dīpina / aṭaviyā
So aṭaviyā dīpina hatānaṃ pasūnaṃ aṭṭhīni passi.
2. You (pl.) will bathe in the river water.
tumhe / nahāyissatha / nadiyā
Tumhe nadiyā vārismiṃ nahāyissatha.
3. There are tears in the eyes of the daughter who is a young girl.
santi / assūni / cakkhūsu /
dhītāya / taruṇiyā
Assūni taruṇiyā dhītāya cakkhūsu santi.
4. The farmer sells ghee and curd to the merchants.
kassako / vikkiṇāti / sappiṃ ca
/ dadhiṃ ca / vāṇijānaṃ
Kassako vāṇijānaṃ sappiṃ ca dadhiṃ ca vikkiṇāti.
5. The flames of the lamps danced in the wind (vātena).
accīni / dīpānaṃ / nacciṃsu /
Dīpānaṃ accīni vātena nacciṃsu.
6. There is eczema on the feet of the enemy.
atthi / daddu / pādesu /
Sattuno pādesu daddu atthi.
7. The bee (bhamara/madhukara) collects honey from flowers without
madhukaro / saṃharati / madhuṃ
/ pupphehi / na viheṭhento / pupphāni
Madhukaro pupphāni na viheṭhento pupphehi madhuṃ saṃharati.
8. The woman bringing firewood from the forest fell into the river.
vanitā / āharamānā / dārūni /
aṭaviyā / pati / vāriṃ
Vanitā aṭaviyā dārūni āharamānā vāriṃ pati.
9. Planting trees in the fields and gardens men try to collect
ropetvā / rukkhe / khettesu ca
/ uyyānesu ca / manussā / ussahanti / saṃharituṃ / dhanaṃ
Khettesu ca uyyānesu ca rukkhe ropetvā manussā dhanaṃ saṃharituṃ
10. The husband brought a gem for the wife from the city.
sāmī / āhari / maṇiṃ /
bhariyāya / nagarasmā
Sāmī nagarasmā bhariyāya maṇiṃ āhari.
Pali Primer Exercise 30
Translate into English:
1. Balavantehi bhūpatīhi arayo parājitā honti.
by powerful kings / enemies /
defeated / are
The enemies are defeated by the powerful kings.
2. Mayaṃ cakkhūhi bhānumantassa suriyassa rasmiyo oloketuṃ na
we / with eyes / of radiant sun
/ rays / to see / are not able
We are not able to see the rays of the radiant sun with (our) eyes.
3. Bhikkhavo Bhagavatā desitaṃ dhammaṃ sutvā satimantā bhavituṃ
monks / by Blessed One /
preached / dhamma / having heard / mindful / to be / endeavored
The monks heard the dhamma preached by the Blessed One and endeavored to
4. Sīlavantā upāsakā Bhagavantaṃ vanditvā dhammaṃ sutvā satimantā
virtuous lay devotees / [to]
Blessed One / having paid respect / dhamma / having heard / mindful / to
be / tried
The virtuous lay devotees, having paid respect to the Blessed One and
heard the dhamma, tried to be mindful.
5. Paññavantehi icchitaṃ patthitaṃ samijjhissati.
of the wise / desires /
aspirations / will be fulfilled
Desires and aspirations of the wise will be fulfilled.
6. Kulavato bhātā Bhagavatā saha mantento bhūmiyaṃ pattharitāya
kilañjāyaṃ (mat) nisinno ahosi.
belonging to good family /
brother / with Blessed One / taking counsel / on ground / spread / mat /
seated / was
The brother belonging to a good family was seated on the mat spread on
the ground, taking counsel with the Blessed One.
7. Phalavantesu tarūsu nisinnā pakkhino phalāni khāditvā aṭṭhīni
on fruit-laden trees / perched
/ birds / fruits / having eaten / seeds / on ground / dropped
The birds perched on the fruit-laden trees ate fruits and dropped the
seeds on the ground.
8. Himavati bahū (many) pasavo ca pakkhī ca uragā (reptiles) ca
on Himalayas / many / animals
and / birds and / reptiles and / live
Many animals, birds and reptiles live on the Himalayas.
9. Sīlavantā dhammaṃ sutvā cakkhumantā bhavituṃ ussahissanti.
virtuous people / dhamma /
having listened to / men with vision / to be / try
Virtuous people listen to the dhamma and try to be men with vision.
10. Guṇavato bandhu sīḷavatiṃ pañhaṃ pucchi.
of virtuous one / relatives /
virtuous lady / question / ask
The relatives of the virtuous one asked the virtuous lady a question.
11. Guṇavatī yuvati sīlaṃ rakkhantī mātaraṃ posesi.
virtuous young woman / precepts
/ observing / mother / looked after
The virtuous young woman observing the precepts looked after (her)
12. Yasavatiyā bandhavo balavanto pabhuno abhaviṃsu.
famous lady's / relatives /
powerful / eminent / became
The relatives of the famous lady became powerful and eminent people.
13. Dhanavantassa sappurisassa bhariyā puññavatī ahosi.
rich good man's / wife /
meritorious / was
The rich good man's wife was meritorious.
14. Sīlavantesu vasantā asappurisā pi guṇavantā bhaveyyuṃ.
with virtuous people / living /
wicked men / too (even) / good / would become
Even wicked men living in the company of virtuous people would become
15. Silavatiyo mātaro putte guṇavante kātuṃ ussahanti.
virtuous mothers / sons / noble
/ to make / try
The virtuous mothers try to make their sons noble.
16. Buddhimā puriso pāpaṃ karonte putte anusāsitaṃ paññavantaṃ
intelligent man / evil / doing
/ sons / to admonish / wise monk / invited
The intelligent man invited the wise monk to admonish (his) sons doing
17. Kulavato nattā sīlavatā bhikkhunā dhammaṃ sutvā pasīditvā gehaṃ
pahāya bhikkhūsu pabbaji.
grandson of a man of good
family / virtuous monk / dhamma / having heard / having being pleased /
home / having left / among monks / got ordained
The grandson of a noble family, was pleased after listening to the
dhamma from the virtuous monk, left the household and got ordained among
18. Balavantā pabhuno guṇavanto bhavantu.
powerful men of eminence /
righteous / may...be
May the powerful men of eminence be righteous.
19. Dhanavantā balavantā kadāci karahaci (seldom) guṇavantā bhavanti.
rich powerful people / seldom /
virtuous / are
Rich powerful people are seldom virtuous.
20. Himavantasmā āgato paññavā isi sīlavatiyā mātuyā uyyāne atithi
from Himalayas / come / wise
sage / virtuous mother's / in park / guest / was
The wise sage who has come from the Himalayas was the guest of the
virtuous mother in the park.
21. Dubbalaṃ (weak) sīlavatiṃ itthiṃ disvā anukampamānā dhanavatī taṃ
weak virtuous woman / having
seen / feeling compassionate / rich lady / her / brought...up
Feeling compassionate, the rich lady saw the weak virtuous woman and
brought her up.
22. Himavati phalavantā taravo na chinditabbā honti.
in Himalayas / fruitful trees /
not to be cut / are
The fruitful trees in the Himalayas should not be cut.
23. Dhammassa viññātāro yasavantā bhavituṃ na ussahanti.
of Dhamma / knowers / famous /
to be / do not try
Those who know the Dhamma do not try to be famous.
24. Bandhumā balavā hoti, dhanavā bandhumā hoti.
he who has relatives / powerful
/ is / he who is rich / relatives / has
He who has relatives is powerful, he who is rich has relatives.
25. Sīlavatī rājinī guṇavatīhi itthīhi saddhiṃ sālāyaṃ nisīditvā
yasavatiyā kaññāya kathaṃ suṇi.
virtuous queen / with good
women / in hall / having seated / famous girl's / speech / listened
The virtuous queen with the good women sat in the hall and listened to
the speech of the famous girl.
26. Guṇavā puriso rukkhamhā ojavantāni phalāni ocinitvā vihāre
vasantānaṃ silavantānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ vibhaji.
virtuous man / from tree /
nourishing fruits / having picked / in monastery / living / to virtuous
monks / distributed
The virtuous man picked nourishing fruits from the tree and distributed
to the virtuous monks living in the monastery.
27. Balavatiyā rājiniyā amaccā dhammena dīpe manusse pālesuṃ.
powerful queen's / ministers /
righteously / on island / people / ruled
The ministers of the powerful queen ruled the people on the island
28. Yasavantīnaṃ nārīnaṃ dhītaro pi yasavantiyo bhavissanti.
of famous women / daughters /
too / famous / will be
The daughters of the famous women will be famous too.
29. Paññavantiyā yuvatiyā puṭṭho dhanavā pañhaṃ vyākātuṃ asakkonto
by wise maiden / asked / rich
man / question / to explain / unable / in hall / sat
The rich man, unable to explain the question asked by the wise maiden,
sat in the hall.
30. Bhānumā suriyo manussānaṃ ālokaṃ deti.
radiant / sun / to people /
light / gives
The radiant sun gives light to the people.
Translate into Pali:
1. Sages living in the Himalaya sometimes (kadāci) come to towns.
munayo / vasantā / himavante /
kadāci / upasa'nkamanti / nagare
Munayo himavante vasantā nagare kadāci upasa'nkamanti.
2. Mindful monks preached the doctrine to wise lay devotees.
satimantā bhikkhavo / desesuṃ /
dhammaṃ / paññavantānaṃ upāsakānaṃ
Satimantā bhikkhavo paññavantānaṃ upāsakānaṃ dhammaṃ desesuṃ.
3. Fortunate people have virtuous friends and relations.
puññavantānaṃ manussānaṃ /
atthi/santi/bhavanti/honti / guṇavantā mittā ca / bandhavo ca
Puññavantānaṃ manussānaṃ guṇavantā mittā ca bandhavo ca
4. Rich merchants go from village to village selling goods.
dhanavantā vāṇijā / gacchanti /
gāmasmā / gāmaṃ / vikkiṇantā / bhaṇḍāni
Dhanavantā vāṇijā bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇantā gāmasmā gāmaṃ gacchanti.
5. The virtuous girl was the wife of the rich teacher.
guṇavatī taruṇī / ahosi /
bhariyā / dhanavantassa ācariyassa
Guṇavatī taruṇī dhanavantassa ācariyassa bhariyā ahosi.
6. The intelligent monk answered the question asked by the powerful
paññavā bhukkhu / vyākari /
pañhaṃ / puṭṭhaṃ / balavatā pabhunā
Paññavā bhikkhu balavatā pabhunā puṭṭhaṃ pañhaṃ vyākari.
7. There are garlands in the hand of the virtuous girl.
atthi / mālāyo / hatthe /
Guṇavatiyā kumāriyā hatthe mālāyo atthi.
8. The rich are famous, the wise are virtuous.
dhanavanto / honti / yasavantā
/ paññavantā / honti / guṇavantā
Dhanavanto yasavantā honti, paññavantā guṇavantā honti.
9. You (pl.) do not avoid virtuous and wise men.
tumhe / mā parivajjetha /
paññavante ca / guṇavante ca
Mā tumhe paññavante ca guṇavante ca parivajjetha.
10. The Fortunate One is living in the famous island ruled by the
Bhagavanto / viharati /
yasavati dīpasmiṃ / pālite / balavantena bhūpatinā
Bhagavanto balavantena bhūpatinā pālite yasavati dīpasmiṃ viharati.
11. If a wise man lives in the village, people will become virtuous.
sace / sīlavā manusso / vasati
/ gāme / manussā / bhavissanti / guṇavantā
Sace sīlavā manusso gāme vasati, manussā guṇavantā bhavissanti.
12. May men of good families become virtuous and wise.
kulavantā manussā / bhavantu /
guṇavantā ca / viññātāro ca
Kulavantā manussā guṇavantā ca viññātāro ca bhavantu.
13. People will follow the rich and powerful.
manussā / anugacchissanti /
dhanavante ca / balavante ca
Manussā dhanavante ca balavante ca anugacchissanti.
14. The famous king defeated the powerful enemy who has many
yasavanto bhūpati / parājesi /
bandhumantaṃ balavantaṃ sattuṃ
Yasavanto bhūpati bandhumantaṃ balavantaṃ sattuṃ parājesi.
15. People with eyes see the radiant sun.
cakkhumantā manussā / passanti
/ bhānumantaṃ suriyaṃ
Cakkhumantā manussā bhānumantaṃ suriyaṃ passanti.
Pali Primer Exercise 31
Translate into English:
1. Mama ācariyo maṃ vācento* potthakaṃ (book) likhi (wrote).
my / teacher / me / teaching /
book / wrote
My teacher (who is) teaching me wrote a book.
2. Mayhaṃ bhaginī gilānaṃ (sick) pitaraṃ posesi.
my / sister / sick father /
My sister looked after (our) sick father.
3. Dātāro bhikkhūnaṃ dānaṃ dentā amhe pi bhojāpesuṃ.
donors / to monks / alms /
giving / us / too / fed
The donors giving alms to the monks fed us too.
4. Tumhākaṃ dhītaro kuhiṃ (where) gamissanti?
your / daughters / where / will
Where will your daughters go?
5. Amhākaṃ dhītaro satthāraṃ namassituṃ Veḷuvanaṃ gamissanti.
our / daughters / teacher / to
worship / [to] Veluvana / will go
Our daughters will go to Veluvana to worship the teacher.
6. Amhaṃ kammāni karontā dāsā (servants) pi sappurisā bhavanti.
for us / work / doing /
servants / too / virtuous men / become
The servants doing work for us become virtuous men too.
Alt: The servants doing work for us are virtuous men too.
7. Amhehi katāni puññāni ca pāpāni ca amhe anubandhanti.
by us / done / merit and / evil
and / us / follow
Merit and evil done by us follow us.
8. Tayā kītāni bhaṇḍāni tava dhītā mañjūsāsu pakkhipitvā ṭhapesi.
by you / bought / goods / your
/ daughter / in boxes / having put / kept
Your daughter put the goods bought by you in the boxes and kept (them).
9. Kulavantā ca caṇḍālā (outcasts) ca amhesu bhikkhūsu pabbajanti.
men of good families and /
outcastes and / among us / monks / renounce
(Both) men of good families and outcastes renounce (the world) among us
10. Amhākaṃ uyyāne phalavantesu tarūsu vaṇṇavantā pakkhino caranti.
in our park / on fruitful trees
/ colourful birds / move
The colourful birds move on the fruitful trees in our park.
11. Uyyānaṃ āgantvā tiṇāni khādantā migā amhe passitvā bhāyitvā
[to] park / having come / grass
/ eating / deer / us / having seen / were frightened / [into] forest /
Coming to the park and eating grass, the deer having seen us were
frightened and ran into the forest.
12. Amhākaṃ bhattāro nāvāya udadhiṃ taritvā dīpaṃ pāpuṇiṃsu.
our / husbands / by ship / sea
/ having crossed / island / reached
Our husbands crossed the sea by ship and reached the island.
13. Amhaṃ bhūpatayo balavantā jetāro bhavanti.
our / kings / powerful /
victorious / are
Our kings are powerful and victorious.
14. Tumhākaṃ nattāro ca mama bhātaro ca sahayakā abhaviṃsu/ahesuṃ.
your / grandsons and / my /
brothers and / friends / were
Your grandsons and my brothers were friends.
15. Tumhehi āhaṭāni cīvarāni mama mātā bhikkhūnaṃ pūjesi.
by you / brought / robes / my /
mother / to monks / offered
My mother offered to the monks the robes brought by you.
16. Uyyāne nisinno ahaṃ nattārehi kīḷantaṃ tavaṃ apassiṃ.
in park / seated / I / with
grandsons / playing / you / saw
Seated in the park, I saw you playing with the grandsons.
17. Dhaññaṃ minanto ahaṃ tayā saddhiṃ kathetuṃ na sakkomi.
corn / measuring / I / with you
/ to speak / am not able
Measuring corn, I am not able to speak with you.
18. Ahaṃ tava na kujjhāmi, tvaṃ me kujjhasi.
I / with you / am not angry /
you / with me / are angry
I am not angry with you, you get angry with me.
19. Mama dhanavanto bandhavo viññū viduno bhavanti.
my rich relatives / intelligent
/ educated / are
My rich relatives are intelligent and educated.
20. Dīpassa accinā ahaṃ tava chāyaṃ passituṃ sakkomi.
of lamp / by flame / I / your /
shadow / to see / am able
By the shape of the lamp, I can see your shadow.
21. Amhākaṃ bhūpatayo jetāro hutvā pāsādesu ketavo ussāpesuṃ
our / kings / victorious /
having being / on palaces / banners / hoisted
Our kings being victorious hoisted banners on the palaces.
22. Bhātuno puttā mama gehe viharantā sippaṃ uggaṇhiṃsu.
brother's / sons / my / in
house / living / arts and science / learnt
Brother's sons/children living in my house received education.
23. Tava duhitā bhikkhuno ovāde ṭhatvā patino kāruṇikā sakhī (friend)
your / daughter / monk's /
advice / having abided / to husband / kind / friend / became
Your daughter abiding by the monk's advice became a kind friend to (her)
24. Kusalaṃ karontā netāro saggaṃ gantāro bhavissanti.
good deeds / doing / leaders /
[to] heavens / goers / will be
The leaders doing good deeds will be heaven-goers.
25. Sace coro gehaṃ pavisati sīsaṃ bhinditvā nāsetabbo hoti.
if / robber / house / enters /
head / having broken / to be killed / is
If a robber enters the house, he should be killed by breaking (his)
26. Amhākaṃ sattuno hatthesu ca pādesu ca daddu atthi.
of our enemy / on hands and /
on feet and / eczema / there is
There is eczema on the hands and feet of our enemy.
27. Sīlavantā buddhimantehi saddhiṃ loke manussānaṃ hitasukhāya (for
welfare and happiness) nānā kammāni karonti.
righteous men / with
intelligent men / in world / people's / for welfare and happiness /
various activities / perform
Righteous men together with intelligent people perform various
activities for the welfare and happiness of human beings in the world.
28. Sace susūnaṃ vinetā kāruniko hoti, te sotavantā susavo gunavantā
if / young ones' /
disciplinarian / kind person / is / they / listening young ones /
virtuous men / will become
If the disciplinarian of the young ones is a kind person, they will
become virtuous listening (to him).
29. Mayaṃ khīramhā dadhi ca dadhimhā sappiṃ ca labhāma.
we / from milk / curds and /
from curds / ghee and / get
We get curds from milk and ghee from curds.
30. Mayaṃ sappiṃ ca madhuṃ ca sammissetvā bhojanaṃ paṭiyādetvā
we / ghee and / honey and /
having mixed / meal / having prepared / shall enjoy
We shall enjoy a dish (meal) prepared by mixing ghee and honey.
Translate into Pali:
1. May our sons and grandsons live long and happily.
amhākaṃ puttā ca / nattāro ca /
dīghajivino ca / sukhino ca / (hontu)
Amhākaṃ puttā ca nattāro ca dīghajivino ca sukhino ca hontu.
2. Trees should not be cut by us or by you.
taravo / na chinditabbā honti /
amhehi ca / tumhehi ca
Taravo amhehi ca tumhehi ca na chinditabbā honti.
3. Your king went to the island with the ministers and defeated the
tumhākaṃ / bhūpati / gantvā /
dīpaṃ / mantīhi saha / parājesi / sattavo
Tumhākaṃ bhūpati mantīhi saha dīpaṃ gantvā sattavo parājesi.
4. I picked up the seeds which were scattered on the ground by you.
ahaṃ / saṃhariṃ / bījāni /
vippakiṇṇāni / bhūmiyaṃ / tvayā
Ahaṃ tvayā bhūmiyaṃ vippakiṇṇāni bījāni saṃhariṃ.
5. Our teacher who was wise and famous taught us the doctine.
amhākaṃ / viññū yasavanto
ācariyo / vācesi / amhe / dhammaṃ
Amhākaṃ viññū yasavanto ācariyo amhe dhammaṃ vācesi.
6. A bird taking a fruit by the beak was seen by you.
pakkhī / ocinanto / phalaṃ /
tuṇḍena / diṭṭho / tayā
Tuṇḍena phalaṃ ocinanto pakkhī tayā diṭṭho.
7. My grandson wishes to become a doctor.
mayhaṃ / nattā / icchati /
bhavituṃ / vejjo
Mayhaṃ nattā vejjo bhavituṃ icchati.
8. You (pl.) saw sages living in caves in the Himalaya mountain.
tumhe / passittha / munayo /
vasante / guhāsu / Himavantamhi girimhi
Tumhe Himavantamhi girimhi guhāsu vasante munayo passittha.
9. May our sons and daughters become rich and virtuous.
amhākaṃ / puttā ca / dhītaro ca
/ bhavantu / dhanavantā ca / guṇavantā ca
Amhākaṃ puttā ca dhītaro ca dhanavantā ca guṇavantā ca bhavantu.
10. My grandson will become a disciple of yours.
mama / nattā / bhavissati /
sāvako / tava
Mama nattā tava sāvako bhavissati.
11. May you be rich and famous.
tvaṃ / hohi/bhava / dhanavanto
ca / yasavanto ca
Tvaṃ dhanavanto ca yasavanto ca hohi/bhava.
12. The bee (madhukara) is standing on the lotus born (jāta) in the
madhukaro / tiṭṭhati / padume /
jāte / udake
Madhukaro udake jāte padume tiṭṭhati.
13. The devoted lay devotee gave a flower to the young girl of good
saddhāvanto upāsako / ādadi /
pupphaṃ / kulavantiyā yuvatiyā
Saddhāvanto upāsako kulavantiyā yuvatiyā pupphaṃ ādadi.
14. The famous young girl has a colourful gem in her hand.
yasavantiyā yuvatiyā /
(atthi/hoti/bhavati) / vaṇṇavanto mani / hatthamhi
Yasavantiyā yuvatiyā hatthamhi vaṇṇavanto mani atthi/hoti/ bhavati.
15. The radiant sun illuminates the world.
bhānumanto ravi / obhāseti /
Bhānumanto ravi lokaṃ obhāseti.
* How does vāceti, which literally means "cause to speak" came to
mean "teach"? In the past, teaching is largely done through rote
learning. For the teacher to pass on his knowledge to the pupil, he
makes his pupil repeat after him and makes his recite what he has
committed into memory. Thus, in teaching the student, the teacher
literally causes him to speak.
** At this point of time, it is important to remind everyone that
Buddhism strongly advises against taking lives.
Pali Primer Exercise 32
Translate into English:
1. Yassā so putto hoti sā mātā puññavatī hoti.
her / he / son / is / she /
fortunate mother / is
Lit: He is her son, she is a fortunate mother.
She, whose son he is, is a fortunate mother.
2. Yo taṃ dīpaṃ pāleti so dhammiko bhūpati hoti.
he who / that / island / rules
/ he / righteous king / is
He who rules that island is a righteous king.
3. Kena ajja (today) navaṃ (new) jīvitamaggaṃ na pariyesitabbaṃ?
who / today / new / way of life
/ should not search
Who should not search for a new way of life today?
4. Sace tumhe asappurisā lokaṃ dūseyyātha (pollute) kattha
puttadhītarehi saddhiṃ tumhe vasatha?
if / you / wicked men / world /
would pollute / where / with sons and daughters / you / live
If you wicked men pollute the world, where would you live with your sons
5. Yadā bhikkhavo sannipatitvā sālāyaṃ kilañjāsu nisīdiṃsu tadā
when / monks / having assembled
/ in hall / on mats / sat / then / Buddha / entered
When the monks assembled and sat on the mats in the hall, then the
6. Yasmiṃ padese Buddho viharati tattha gantuṃ ahaṃ icchāmi.
(in) which / in locality /
Buddha / dwells / there / to go / I / wish
In which locality the Buddha dwells, there I wish to go.
7. Yāyaṃ guhāyaṃ sīhā vasanti taṃ pasavo na upasa'nkamanti.
(in) which / in cave / lions /
live / there / beasts / do not approach
In which cave the lions live, there beasts do not approach.
8. Yo dhanavā hoti, tena sīlavatā bhavitabbaṃ.
he who / rich / is / he /
virtuous / should be
He who is rich should be virtuous.
9. Sace tumhe maṃ pañhaṃ pucchissatha ahaṃ vissajjetuṃ (to explain)
if / you / me / question /
would ask / I / to explain / will try
If you ask me the question, I will try to explain.
10. Yatha sīlavantā bhikkhavo vasanti tattha manussā sappurisā honti.
where / virtuous monks / live /
there / people / good men / are
Where virtuous monks live, the people there are good.
11. Kadā tvaṃ mātaraṃ passituṃ bhariyāya saddhiṃ gacchasi?
when / you / mother / to see /
with wife / go
When will you go to see mother with (your) wife?
12. Yāhi rukkhā chinnā tāyo pucchituṃ kassako āgato hoti.
(by) whom / trees / cut / them
/ to question / farmer / come / has
The farmer has come to question those women by whom the trees were cut.
13. Kathaṃ tumhe udadhiṃ tarituṃ āka'nkhatha?
how / you / sea / to cross /
How do you wish to cross the sea?
14. Kuto tā itthiyo maṇayo āhariṃsu?
from where / they / women /
gems / brought
From where did the women bring the gems?
15. Yāsu mañjūsāsu ahaṃ suvaṇṇaṃ nikkhipiṃ tā corā coresuṃ.
(in) which / boxes / I / gold /
put / they / robbers / stole
They, the robbers, stole those boxes in which I put the gold.
16. Yo ajja nagaraṃ gacchati so tarūsu ketavo passissati.
he who / today / [to] city /
goes / he / on trees / flags / will see
He who goes to the city today will see flags on the trees.
17. Yassa mayā yāgu pūjitā so bhikkhu tava putto hoti.
to him (whom) / by me / gruel /
offered / he / monk / your / son / is
The monk to whom I offered gruel is your son.
18. Kuto ahaṃ dhammassa viññātāraṃ paññavantaṃ bhikkhuṃ labhissāmi?
from where / I / knowledgeable
of the Dhamma / wise monk / will get
From where will I get a wise monk who understands the Dhamma?
19. Yasmā so bhikkhūsu pabbaji, tasmā sā pi pabbajituṃ icchati.
because / he / among monks /
got ordained / therefore / she / too / to get ordained / wished
Because he got ordained among the monks, therefore she wishes to get
20. Yaṃ ahaṃ jānāmi tumhe pi taṃ jānātha.
he who / I / know / you / too /
him / know
Lit: He who I know, you know him too.
You also know him whom I know.
21. Yāsaṃ itthīnaṃ dhanaṃ so icchati tāhi taṃ labhituṃ so na sakkoti.
of (whom) / women / wealth / he
/ wishes / from (them) / it / to get / he / is unable
He is unable to get from those women their wealth which he desires.
22. Yato amhākaṃ bhūpati arayo parājesi tasmā mayaṃ tarūsu ketavo
because / our / king / enemies
/ defeated / therefore / we / on trees / banners / tied
Because our king defeated the enemies, we tied banners on trees.
23. Kadā amhākaṃ patthanā (aspirations) samijjhanti?
when / our / aspirations / will
When will our aspirations come to fruition?
24. Sabbe te sappurisā tesaṃ pañhe vissajjetuṃ vāyamantā sālāya
all / they / good men / for
them / questions / to solve / trying / in hall / seated / are
All those good men are seated in the hall trying to solve their
questions for them.
25. Sace tvaṃ dvāraṃ thakesi ahaṃ pavisituṃ na sakkomi.
if / you / door / shut / I / to
enter / am not able
If you shut the door, I cannot enter.
26. Amhehi katāni kammāni chāyāyo viya amhe anubandhanti.
by us / done / actions /
shadows / like / us / follow
Actions done by us follow us like shadows.
27. Susavo mātaraṃ rakkhanti.
young ones / mother / protect
The young ones protect (their) mother.
28. Ahaṃ sāminā saddhiṃ gehe viharantī modāmi.
I / with husband / in house /
living / am happy
I am happy living in the house with (my) husband.
29. Tumhākaṃ puttā ca dhītaro ca udadhiṃ taritvā bhaṇḍāni vikkiṇantā
mūlaṃ pariyesituṃ icchanti.
your / sons and / daughters and
/ sea / having crossed / goods / selling / money / to search / hope
Your sons and daughters cross the sea and hope to search money (gain)
30. Tvaṃ suraṃ pivasi, tasmā sā tava kujjhati.
you / liquor / drink /
therefore / she / with you / gets angry
You drink liquor, therefore she gets angry with you.
Translate into Pali:
1. He who is virtuous will defeat the enemy.
(so) yo / hoti / sīlavā /
parājessati / ariṃ
Yo sīlavā hoti so ariṃ parājessati.
2. The girl who spoke at the meeting is not a relation of mine.
dārikā (yā) / kathesi /
sabhāyaṃ / na hoti / bandhu / mayhaṃ
Yā dārikā sabhāyaṃ kathesi sā na mayhaṃ bandhu hoti.
3. When the mother comes home the daughter will give the gems.
yadā / mātā / āgamissati* /
gehaṃ / dhītā / dassati/dadissati / maṇayo
Yadā mātā gehaṃ āgamissati (tadā) dhītā maṇayo dassati/dadissati.
4. The dog to whom I gave rice is my brother's.
kukkurāya / yassa / ahaṃ /
adadiṃ / odanaṃ / (so) / hoti / mayhaṃ / bhātussa
Yassa kukkurāya ahaṃ odanaṃ adadiṃ so mayhaṃ bhātussa hoti.
5. Why did you not come home today to worship the monks?
kasmā / tvaṃ / na āgami / gehaṃ
/ ajja / vandituṃ / bhikkhavo
Kasmā tvaṃ bhikkhavo vandituṃ ajja gehaṃ na āgami?
6. From where did you get the robes which you offered to the monks?
kutra / tvaṃ / labhi / cīvarāni
/ yāni / tvaṃ / pūjayi / bhikkhūnaṃ
Yāni cīvarāni kutra tvaṃ labhi tvaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ pūjayi?
7. (To) whom did you give the gold which I gave you?
kassa / tvaṃ / adāsi / suvaṇṇaṃ
/ mayā / dinnaṃ / tava
Mayā tava suvaṇṇaṃ kassa tvaṃ adāsi dinnaṃ?
8. Eat what you like.
Lit: Whatever you like, eat it.
yaṃ / tvaṃ / icchasi / bhuñja /
Yaṃ tvaṃ icchasi, taṃ bhuñja.
9. I will sit on the rock until you bathe in the river.
ahaṃ / nisīdissāmi / pāsāṇe /
yāva / tvaṃ / nahāyissasi** / nadiyaṃ
Yāva tvaṃ nadiyaṃ nahāyissasi tāva ahaṃ pāsāṇe nisīdissāmi.
10. Where intelligent people live there I wish to dwell.
yattha / viññātāro / viharanti
/ tattha / ahaṃ / icchāmi / viharituṃ
Yattha viññātāro viharanti tattha ahaṃ viharituṃ icchāmi.
* Use future tense.
** Use future tense.